True, the concept of Ovie plural: Ivie , rightly translated into English as King, was well embedded in Urhobo culture. These were Ogor and Ughelli in central Urhoboland, discounting the exceptional practices in Agbarha that designated its three sub-clan chieftains as Ivie. In in much greater grandeur, Okpe in northern Urhobo revived its own institution of Ovie, named Orodje, which it had abandoned for centuries after a one-time flirtation with kingship. As a notable sub-culture of Urhobo, Agbon was very much conflicted about kingship. On the one hand, Agbon sub-culture was deeply suspicious of kingship. Well up to the early s, Agbon people were proud of their cultural coinage: This adage translates into English as follows: In any Agbon community, the oldest man is Ovie King , thus investing gerontocracy with the dignity of royalty. On the other hand, there was plenty of sublime admiration for kingship in Agbon sub-culture, even before the s.

10 Taboo Rituals Still Performed Today

Funeral Rites are as old as the human race itself. Every human culture ever studied has three common threads for death and the disposition of their dead: One of the first examples of this was unearthed in the Shanidar cave in Iraq; Neanderthal skeletons were discovered with a layer of pollen.

African art, the visual arts of native Africa, particularly sub-Saharan Africa, including such media as sculpture, painting, pottery, rock art, textiles, masks, personal decoration, and jewelry.. For more general explorations of media, see individual media articles (e.g., painting, sculpture, pottery, and textile).For a discussion of the characteristics, functions, and forms of masks, see mask.

Share67 Shares While some rituals can involve something as simple as a silent, individual prayer, others—especially those involving a larger group—can be extremely painful and violent. Here are some of the most bizarre taboo rituals from all over the world: They believe that the greatest fear human beings have is the fear of their own deaths, and that this fear is a barrier to spiritual enlightenment. So by confronting it, one can achieve enlightenment.

There are five types of people who cannot be cremated according to Hinduism: These people are set afloat down the Ganges, where the Aghori pull them from the water and ritually consume them. The rituals are a means of praying to the Great Spirit, and sacrificing oneself while retaining a direct contact with the Tree of Life. The skin on the chest of the participants is pierced with a skewer , and a rope connects the skewer to a pole which represents the Tree of Life.

The participants then move back and forth to try and break free from the skewer—which, it bears repeating, is still lodged in their skin. This dance may take several hours before it is completed. In what can only be described as a gruesome display, the men whip their bodies with blades attached to chains. In their state of religious trance, they apparently do not feel the pain.

The villagers sing and dance together, and some of them beat drums as men come forward to volunteer for the jump.


The premier web site of Edo speaking people. D This posting is a collection of oral tradition passed down to me, my critical evaluation of folklore, and ideas from a variety of written sources Egharevba , Bradbury , Crowder , Basil Davidson et al , Akenzua , Igbafe , Erhagbe class notes Introduction Although Nigeria was the creation of European ambitions and rivalries in West Africa, it would be an error to assume that its peoples had little history before its final boundaries were negotiated by Britain, France and Germany at the turn of the twentieth century.

According to Crowder, this newly created country had a number of great kingdoms that had evolved complex systems of government prior to contact with Europeans. Within its frontiers was the kingdom of the Edo, whose art had become recognized as amongst the most accomplished in the world. The twin kingdoms of Edo and Oyo Yorubaland remained two of the most powerful kingdoms on the west coast of Africa up until the establishment of the British Protectorate at the end of the nineteenth century.

Friulian started to appear in writing during the 11th century. There is Friulian literature and poetry dating back to the early 14th century. In the 20th century there was a revival of interest in the language.

Being in a relationship is not easy. It is also very unpredictable. One day, you are having the greatest moment of your life with your partner and the next day, you are crying your lungs out. One moment, you desperately want to spend the rest of your life with your partner and the next, you may find all your things packed up out on the sidewalk. Yes, being in a relationship is very difficult.

It is much more difficult if you think that your partner also has affections for the same sex. It may even be the hardest challenge that any couple could deal with. Figuring out whether your loved one is gay or not is very tricky business. There are as many types of gayness as there are gay guys in the world.

The Manny Enajeroh Blog: 10 Easy Ways To Know If Your Boyfriend Is Gay.

Tassili n’Ajjer rock art The earliest evidence that shed some light on the pre-historic Fulani culture can be found in the Tassili n’Ajjer rock art, which seem to depict the early life of the people dating back to BCE. Examination of these rock paintings suggests the presence of proto-Fulani cultural traits in the region by at least the 4th millennium BCE. At the Tin Tazarift site, for instance, historian Amadou Hampate Ba recognized a scene of the ‘lotori’ ceremony, a celebration of the ox’s aquatic origin.

In a finger motif, Ba detected an allusion to the myth of the hand of the first Fulani herdsman, Kikala.

Igboland (Standard Igbo: Àlà Ị̀gbò [citation needed]), also known as Southeastern Nigeria, is the homeland of the Igbo people. [3] [4] It is a non-governmental cultural and common linguistic region in southern Nigeria.

Timbuktu Manuscripts The Timbuktu Manuscripts unveil history of Africa Manuscript from the UNESCO’s programme aiming at preservation and dissemination of valuable archive holdings and library collections worldwide Timbuktu manuscripts: There, in the 15th century, at the height of the gold and salt trade, merchants and scholars are thick as thieves and the 25, African students enrolled at the University of Sankore camp in front of the ulemas reputed to be exceptionally erudite.

In , Leo Africanus reports that higher profits can be made there from selling books than from any other merchandise — proving the value of the written word. Today some of these manuscript documents have vital political significance, as for instance the Tarikh el Sudan that traces the succession of the chiefs of Timbuktu in the 15th century, or the Tarikh el Fetash, which does the same for medieval Sudan.

The existence of this heritage clearly refutes the stereotype that characterizes Africa as a continent of exclusively oral tradition. Long forsaken treasures But do the indigenous populations of Mali know that they possess, under their feet or in their attics, hundreds of thousands of vital manuscripts dating from the 13th to the 19th century? Nothing is less certain. Let us judge for ourselves: Written commentaries by the sages of Cordoba, Baghdad or Djenne can still be seen there.

On screen-fronted shelves, legal acts regulating the lives of Jews and apostate Christians testify to the intense commercial activity of the era. Parchments concerning selling and freeing slaves, the market prices of salt, spices, gold and feathers are propped against correspondence between sovereigns from both sides of the Sahara, illustrated with illuminations in gold.

All this is frightening. It is intimidating, to the point that even scientists are troubled by so much available knowledge.

Creation Stories

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According to folklore, when a couple was to be engaged, they would spend time together in silence. The idea was to see if the couple felt a comfort with each other naturally, and without the reinforcement of words. It is usually performed by men, although it is not uncommon for women to also make the declaration. In a culture where public displays of affection are not common, its significance should not be taken for granted. In many African cultures, including mine Urhobo people of Nigeria , distinctive cultural practices about love, mainly entail marriage.

A common practice is the idea of the bride price or dowry. This involves a formal request to a daughter and her parents, to enter into a marriage, from a son and his in-laws, who may speak on his behalf. But I wager that how a culture practices love and commitments is not only something to learn from, for the sake of knowledge. It would be disingenuous to say that my grandmother would have been against modern dating technology. Cultural practices of arranged marriage was something that she might have understood.

But I do know that modern experiences of feelings-free physical intimacy, love without commitments, and what often feels like the tyranny of choice of potential love , would definitely not have made sense to her. They barely make sense to me.

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The term ‘bride price’ is often used interchangeably in Nigeria with ‘dowry’ by both writers and others concerned with customary law. Such practice, however, may lead to confusion in thought as ‘dowry’ stricto sensu means the property which a woman brings to her husband. On the other hand, ‘bride price’ may be defined as “. Is the term ‘dowry’ equivalent to the term ‘price”? Dowry on the other hand, is not, usually a single or simple sum like a price.

Hippie Baby Names & Hippie Names The Hippie category of baby names and name meanings usually refers to our collection of names that gained prominence .

See Article History African art, the visual arts of native Africa, particularly sub-Saharan Africa, including such media as sculpture, painting, pottery, rock art , textiles, masks, personal decoration, and jewelry. For more general explorations of media, see individual media articles e. For a discussion of the characteristics, functions, and forms of masks, see mask.

The architecture of Africa is treated in a separate article; see African architecture. Overview General characteristics It is difficult to give a useful summary of the main characteristics of the art of sub-Saharan Africa. The variety of forms and practices is so great that the attempt to do so results in a series of statements that turn out to be just as true of, for example, Western art.

Thus, some African art has value as entertainment; some has political or ideological significance; some is instrumental in a ritual context; and some has aesthetic value in itself. More often than not, a work of African art combines several or all of these elements. Similarly, there are full-time and part-time artists; there are artists who figure in the political establishment and those who are ostracized and despised; and some art forms can be made by anyone, while others demand the devotion of an expert.

Claims of an underlying pan-African aesthetic must be viewed as highly contentious. First, in any African language, a concept of art as meaning something other than skill would be the exception rather than the rule. This is not because of any inherent limitation of African culture but because of the historical conditions under which European cultures arrived at their concept of art. The Western separation of fine art from the lowlier craft i.

This separation, therefore, cannot be applied without qualification to African traditions of precolonial origin.


Oladimeji Seun Ayelotan, 30, was sentenced to 95 years in prison; Rasaq Aderoju Raheem, 31, was given years and Femi Alexander Mewase, 45, got 25 years behind bars. A court in the Southern District of Mississippi had in February found them all guilty of crimes including mail fraud, wire fraud, identity theft, credit card fraud and theft of government property.

Ayelotan and Raheem were also found guilty of conspiracies to commit bank fraud and money laundering. Dating back to at least , the scammers were involved in multiple internet fraud schemes, resulting in losses in the tens of millions. A whopping 21 defendants have already been charged in this ongoing case, 12 of whom have pleaded guilty to charges involving conspiracy and 11 of whom have been sentenced.

“Iyenren” is the official Newsletter/Magazine of UPU UK for the dissemination of relevant information to the Urhobo Community in the UK. The Newsletter was officially launched on the 24th of November during the Inauguration and Swearing in ceremony of the Executives elected on the 13th October

Territorial boundaries[ edit ] Igboland is surrounded on all sides by a host of large rivers, and other southern and central Nigeria indigenous tribes namely Bini , Urhobo-Isoko , Ijaw , Ogoni , Igala , Tiv , Yako , Idoma and Ibibio. Baikie, “Igbo homeland, extends east and west, from the Old Kalabar river to the banks of the Kwora, Niger River , and possesses also some territory at Aboh , an Igbo clan, to the west-ward of the latter stream. On the north it borders on Igara, Igala and A’kpoto, and it is separated from the sea only by petty tribes, all of which trace their origin to this great race”.

The northern Igbo Kingdom of Nri , which rose around the 10th century AD, is credited with the foundation of much of Igboland’s culture, customs, and religious practices. It is the oldest existing monarchy in present-day Nigeria. In southern Igboland several groups developed, of which the most notable was the Aro Confederacy.

Nigeria Urhobo Gospel-Evang. Godwin Tom Obioko – Solomon